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Research paper -

Of course, you could choose to restructure the question above so that you do not have to split the dependent variable into two parts. For example:.

Tax Research Paper - Tax Research Paper Topics Ideas

How many calories are consumed per day by American men and women? When deciding whether the dependent variable or group s should be included first or last, and whether the dependent variable should be broken into two parts, the main thing you need to think about is flow : Does the question flow? Is it easy to read? Sometimes the name of the dependent variable provides all the explanation we need to know what we are trying to measure.

Take the following examples:. In the first example, the dependent variable is what research paper calorific intake i. Clearly, this descriptive research question is asking us to measure the number of calories American men and women consume per day. In the second example, the dependent variable is Facebook usage per week. Again, the name of what research paper dependent variable makes it easy for us to understand that we are trying to essay about nature trees the often i.

Research Methodology Series: Issue 2 Variables. What is a Variable in Quantitative Research Methodology? Types of Variables There are different types of variables researchers use within quantitative methods.

Independent Versus Dependent Variables The independent variable is the variable that the researchers would like to change or alter during the process of completing the study. Causation Versus Correlation An independent variable can cause a dependent variable. Critical Consumer of Research Information At first, do not get discouraged in trying to sort out all the different types of variables as it becomes easier over time. Your Homework Your homework is to pop over to the open access journal listing and search for a few studies that use a quantitative methodological approach.

Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Disclaimer The site uses lasted European Union disclaimer regarding website use, If you are using this site you confirming that you are following all the policies. When creating a survey, researchers should take care in making sure that the items in the survey are clear and to the point. Experimental and quasi-experimental research. Some scholars believe that experimental research is the best type of research to assess cause and effect Sherman; Weisburd.

True experiments must have at least three features: 1 two comparison groups i. Many experiments contain both a pre-test and a post-test. The former test measures the dependent variable prior to the experimental intervention while the latter test measures the outcome variable after the experimental group has received the treatment. Randomization is what makes the comparison group in a true experiment a powerful approach for identifying the effects of the treatment Schutt.

Assigning groups randomly to the experimental and comparison groups ensures that systematic bias does not affect the assignment of subjects to groups.

This is important if researchers wish to generalize their findings regarding cause and effect among key variables within and across groups. The classic experimental design is one in which there is a pre-test for both groups, an intervention for one group i. Consider the following criminal justice example. Two police precincts alike in all possible respects are chosen to participate in a study that examines fear of crime in neighborhoods. Both precincts would be pre-tested to obtain information on crime rates and citizen perceptions of crime.

You are assessing how it responds to a change in the independent variable, so you can think of it as depending on the independent variable. Sometimes the dependent variable is called the "responding variable. If you are having a hard time identifying which variable is the independent variable and which is the dependent variable, remember the dependent variable is the one affected by a change in the independent variable.

If you write out the variables in a sentence that shows cause and effect, the independent variable causes the effect on the dependent variable. The type of design limits the strength of the claim that can be made concerning causation: Description. Authors are justified in describing a phenomena. They may note certain variables that occur earlier in time appear to be i. Authors are justified in stating that a relationship may exist between certain predictor and criterion variables, but the design and results from a single study do not justify stating that a causal relationship exists.

If the study is conducted in such a way that threats to internal and external validity are minimized, then the experimenter is justified in stating that the independent variable is causally related to the dependent variable.

Quasi-experimental designs.

Research Design Paper Instructions

This type of design is the most controversial. In some instances it is reasonable to infer causality. However, more often than not, investigators who use this design are not justified in making causal statements -- nonetheless, causal statements appear with amazing frequency.

When evaluating research articles, keep in mind Mueller's three questions: What do the authors want us to believe? Based on these data, how strong is the short essay writing tips for a causal argument?

Experimentation in psychological research. In Experimental psychology: Methodology, psychophysics, and learning. New York: McGraw-Hill. Excerpt from The Relationship of Theory and Research. New York: Harper and Row. On a distinction between hypothetical constructs and intervening variables. Control variables are variables that play an active role in quantities studies. These variables are a special type of independent variable that are measured in a study because they potentially influence the dependent variable.

Moderating variables are special types of independent variables that probably affect the strength of the relationship between a what research paper and independent variable.

Identification of the independent and dependent variables, as well as any mediating or control variables used in the study. Mentioning the specific type of strategy of inquiry used in the study. Referring to the participant or the unit of analysis in the study. Mentioning the research site for the study. Use was made of a covariate consisting of yearly values of annual mean atmospheric pressure at sea level.

The results showed that inclusion of the covariate allowed improved estimates of the trend against time to be obtained, compared to analyses which omitted the covariate. A variable may be thought to alter the dependent or independent variables, but may not actually be the focus of the experiment. So that the variable will be kept constant or monitored to try to minimize its effect on the experiment. Such variables may be designated as either a "controlled variable", " control variable ", or "fixed variable".

Extraneous variables, if included in a regression analysis as independent variables, may aid a researcher with accurate response parameter estimation, predictionand goodness of fitbut are not of substantive interest to the hypothesis under examination.

What research paper

For example, in a study examining the effect of post-secondary education on lifetime earnings, some extraneous variables might be gender, ethnicity, social class, genetics, intelligence, age, and so forth. A variable is extraneous only when it can be assumed or shown to influence the dependent variable. No strict guidelines for approaching the subject exist; however, academic writing demands that the researcher make clear and concise statements.

It is only reasonable not to leave readers guessing which of the variables is dependent and which is independent. The description should reflect the literature review, where both types of variables are identified in the context of the previous research.

For instance, in the case of Study 3, a researcher would have to provide an explanation as to the meaning of stress resilience and coping tactics.In regard to survey data, you should discuss what type of sampling technique you would use random, nonrandom, stratified, etc. Model testing and statistical Analysis.

You need to include this if you will be using a specific model to test your hypotheses and to determine the statistical validity.

What should parenthetical citations present in a research paper

If you would be proposing to use a quantitative model, specify the basic model of the relationship s. You will not have a deep knowledge of statistical methods from this course alone by the time you get started on this paper, so you will need to use what we discuss in class and contained in your text.

Do not stress highly over this issue and try to do your best. Some other important points are as follows. First, inevitably I will field the question regarding the length of the paper. The correct answer is whatever it takes to write a good paper without it being too long. What matters most is quality not quantity, although a lack of sufficient quality may be associated with papers short on quantity. Second, the readings this semester should offer some hints regarding theory, hypotheses, variables, essay presentation measurement and should be the basis for your paper.

You may of course go beyond these readings. What kind of questions can be asked on a research on youth - led agribusiness interventions on creating employment for youth. Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Generate your APA citations for free! Home Knowledge Base Starting the research process Developing strong research questions.

Date updated: February 3, A good research question is essential to guide your research paper, project or thesis.

Tax Research Paper

Here's why students love Scribbr's proofreading services Trustpilot. Is this article helpful? Shona McCombes Shona has a bachelor's and two master's degrees, so she's an expert at writing a great thesis. She has also worked as an editor and teacher, working with students at all different levels to improve their academic writing.

Other students also liked. Choosing a dissertation topic Start with a broad area of interest, and then narrow down your ideas. Make sure to consider the relevance and plausibility of your topic. How to define your research problem A research problem is the specific issue, contradiction, or gap you will address. Try to choose a research question that interests you. The research process is time-consuming, and you'll be significantly more motivated if you have a genuine desire to learn more about the topic.

First, review your library's website. What resources are available? Where will you find them? Do any resources require a special process to gain access? Start gathering those resources-especially those that may be difficult to access-as soon as possible. Measurable : A research paper must contain specific, proven research, and cites all research sources and related literature.

Attainable : A research paper must provide a thesis statement, one that answers the research question and contributes to the knowledge of the given subject. It can't propose to answer a question that doesn't relate to real life or isn't based on an existing body of knowledge. Realistic : A research paper is objective and realistic.

Should it be made to present interpretations, arguments, or evaluations, then it should do so based on valid evidence from reliable sources. Languages Add links. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. IRS audit is quite threatening for most of the workers because it is made to keep a check on previous tax return.

This topic for tax research paper can be very informative for taxpaying masses.

 

 

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